Types of fabrics used in tents
Advantages: Good breathability (breathability) / Does not condense
Disadvantages: It is heavy (180 to 300 grams per square meter) / It rots more easily than other fabrics (when stored even in low humidity)
Part of the tent where it is used : Internal wall of the tent (in this case the use of the roof that is in charge of waterproofing is essential)
Advantages: Lightweight fabric (60 to 80 grams per square meter) / Good resistance to sunlight, abrasion and tearing / Does not absorb water
Disadvantages: Little elastic
Part of the tent where it is used: On the roof with a PU coating ( polyurethane) that gives waterproofing / On the floor with coating / On the inner wall of the tent
Advantages: Lightweight fabric (60 to 80 grams per square meter) / Good resistance to stretching and abrasions / It is elastic and does not rot
Disadvantages: Low resistance to UV rays
Part of the tent where it is used: Inner wall of the tent (in in this case it is essential to use the roof that protects from sunlight)
Ripstop variants: the above fabrics can have the aggregate called ripstop, which is a network of threads that increases the anti-tear capacity. Nylon is the fabric that we commonly find with this aggregate, but it can be other fabrics.
They are applied to the fabrics on the floor and on the ceiling to improve the capabilities of these fabrics, in general 3 kinds of coatings are used:
Silicone Induced Coating: Achieves long-lasting waterproofing with little added weight. It has good elasticity at low temperatures and good protection from UV rays.
Polyurethane Induced Coating: Good flexibility and impermeability even at low temperatures. With UV protection.
PVC induced coating: it is much heavier than the other coatings (thus making the tent heavier) and can crack in the cold (it is the cheapest coating of the 3 and is used in the lowest quality tents)
PARTS OF THE CARP
I) Roof or Double-roof
It is a fabric that covers the entire cabin or the internal tent and is held taut to the ground by the winds (ropes that come out of the roof and are nailed to the ground by stakes), an important point is that the more winds we have anchored to The most stable ground will be the tent in strong winds.
Some models have a roof that just covers the tent and others come with extensions or skirts, the latter is preferable, that way one can better protect the tent from the elements by firmly fixing the skirts to the ground, for example with stones.
The most crucial element of the double-roof is its waterproof quality: it already comes from the factory with a coating that makes it waterproof and depending on the type and quality of this coating, the impermeability to rain will be greater or less. The waterproofing capacity of a fabric is measured in a unit called mm of the water column, it is very important that you know the value of this measure of the tent that you are going to buy: minimum recommended values are 1000 or 1500 mm of the water column, If the tent is going to be used in snow or very heavy rain conditions, 3000 mm of the water column are recommended.
Keep in mind that if the roof covers the entire tent well, it is only necessary that the roof cover has a good level of waterproofing and not so much the inner wall of the tent.
When the roof has been installed, make sure that there are no wrinkled areas or wells where water can accumulate (which in this way could cross the roof) and above all, try to ensure that the roof does not touch the fabric of the inner wall of the tent.
Another detail to take into account is the colour: light colours better reflect the heat and make the interior temperature more pleasant, while allowing more light to pass through making the interior more illuminated (with dark colours it is the inverse of the above and in days in strong sun it would be advisable to pitch the tent in the shade). Some models come with an aluminized that we can use to regulate heat and filter UV rays by putting the aluminized layer out.
The seams made on all the tent fabrics are a crucial point because they are the place where water can enter when it rains, a good waterproof fabric without adequate seams does not do much good. We have to see that they are double and sealed or heat sealed so that the water does not pass.
III) Interior of the tent or cabin
It is the room of the tent, above which the roof is placed. Inside there are two parts:
a) The floor: it is usually made of polyester or high-density polyethylene, to resist the ground on which it rests.
Although normally the material is sufficiently waterproof and resistant to the ground where it will be supported, it is more than recommended that we take care of the floor because in case of breakage we will lose the insulation inside the tent. For this reason it is always good to carry a tarp or nylon to put it underneath as a reinforcement and protection against moisture from the ground (normally this piece of tarpaulin is not included in a tent but can be easily obtained).
An important detail that the floor must have is a plinth, that is to say that this part of the store that is reinforced does not end at floor level and has a little height. This is very necessary in the case of rain and we have water circulating or running around the tent.
b) Internal wall: it is usually one of the materials listed above, what we need most from this fabric is that it is breathable, this means that it lets out moisture in the form of steam through it even if we have the tent closed, Which water vapor? The one that we exhale when we breathe or the one that we perspire, if this steam does not leave the store then it will condense on the fabric and will end up moistening it, which is something that must always be avoided.
It is also good that we have at least mosquito nets in all openings and that they are several to keep the interior ventilated whenever the weather allows it.
They are the fibreglass or aluminium rods that form that give the structure and shape to the tent. The stability of the tent against high-intensity winds will depend on the quality of these stands and their quantity, a greater quantity is always better.
Read more about this topic in the section Types of rods, break prevention, fixes
V) Tensioners or Winds
They are the ropes that come out of the ceiling and the inner wall, they are necessary so that all the fabrics are well extended, they must always be taut (although not excessively) and without wrinkles.
The more winds we have available in the tent, the better, since in case of winds or rain they will help keep the tent in shape. If it doesn’t have enough we can add more winds ourselves. Remember that the stakes that hold the tensioners must be nailed to 45 ° in the ground.
VI) It abides or eaves: It is a portion of the roof or the internal tent that protrudes forming an anteroom to the cabin, this extra space serves to leave backpacks, or change before entering the tent and more than anything to cook with a heater (a task that must always be avoided inside the tent). Generally, igloo type tents usually have an apse, but it is possible and advisable to buy a separate one.